Category Archives: Microbiology

Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

The lower respiratory tract is defined as below and including the larynx. Due to the mucociliary escalator, the complex and abundant bacterial flora of the upper tract is much reduced in the larynx and trachea, and the bronchi are sterile in health. Respiratory tract infections … Continue reading

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Mycobacterium

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Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

The upper respiratory tract is the initial site of infection or a site of colonisation for most infections of the respiratory tract. It is also the site for a number of resident organisms, the prevalence of which will vary in … Continue reading

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Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases

Epidemiology is ‘the study of the occurrence, distribution and control of disease in populations. The risk of infection is not just dependent upon an individual’s susceptibility but on the level of disease within the population, the degree of population mixing … Continue reading

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Viroids, Prions and Virinos

These infectious agents are simpler than viruses. Viroids cause, predominantly, plant diseases such as potato spindle-tuber disease. They consist of circular, single-stranded RNA, usually 250 to 370 nucleotides long. In plants they are found mainly in the nucleolus, but little … Continue reading

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What are Helminths?

Helminths (from the Greek helminthos, meaning worm) refers to all parasitic worms of humans. They are complex, multicellular organisms, ranging in size from the microscopic filarial parasites to the giant tapeworms, several metres in length. Sexual reproduction occurs in all … Continue reading

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Protozoa-Basic Facts

Protozoa, from the Greek meaning ‘first animal’, refers to simple, eukaryotic organisms composed of a microscopic single cell. Reproduction is through simple asexual cell division, or binary fission, in which two daughter cells are formed or, if many daughter cells … Continue reading

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